Useful links
  • پورتال امام خمینی
  • دفتر مقام معظم رهبری
  • ریاست جمهوری
  • معاونت امور مجلس
  • نقشه جامع علمی کشور
  • Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
  • صندوق احیا و بهره برداری از بناهای تاریخی و فرهنگی کشور
General View


Getting to know Iran


Countrys total area
1,648,195 million sq km (the seventeenth largest country in the world)
75,000,000 (2011)

Land and Nature

Iran comprises a land area of over 1.6 million Sqm (the 17th country in the world by land area). Iran is located in the Middle East, south west of Asia.Lying below the northern temperate zone, between latitudes 25 degree north and 39 degree 47 north and between longitude 44 degree 02 east and 63 degree 20 east, the country borders Turkmenistan, The Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the North, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the East, Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf on the south, and Iraq and Turkey on the West. It also shares 740 km Caspian Sea coast line with Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.

Totally, Iran has 8,731 km of border, of which 2,700 km consist of water borders and 6,031 km for land borders. The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand, which is 5,610m high. The longest river is the Karun River with a length of 890 km (the only navigable river in Iran). The largest lake is the Orumiyeh Lake with an area of 4,868 km and the largest Island is Qeshm with an area of 1,491 square km.

Iran has a very colorful and diversified landscape, ranging from high plateaus to mountain ranges and to plains bordering the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. The dominant landscape color is a delicate brown, like the coat of a dear, but the countryside can vary enormously according to the altitude and vegetation.


Irans plateau climate is relatively dry, due to the fact that the Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges prevent the entrance of humid streams from the Caspian and Mediterranean seas into Iran. Nevertheless, the countrys span across 25 and 40 degree latitude, and the varying height levels allow for a diversity of climates.
In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures. Spring and fall are relatively mild while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures that exceed 38° C (100° F) in July. On the Khuzestan plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.

Holidays & National Days

All governmental departments and most business centres throughout the country are closed on Fridays and national holidays. In the Tehran province, all governmental departments are closed on Thursdays as well.
Official Language & Local Dialects
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Azari and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, others 2%.

Capital City
Tehran is the capital city of Iran and the heart of the Tehran province. It is situated on the northern fringe of the great central plateau and at the foot of the southern slope of the impressive Alborz mountain chain. Tehran province has several archaeological sites, which clearly indicate settlements dating back to several thousand years.

Until 300 years ago, Ray was one of the most prominent cities of the province. However, the city of Tehran surpassed Ray and gained its special status as the capital of Iran during the reign of the Qajar dynasty (1795-1925), because of the development that occurred there at the time. Since then, it has been the political, cultural, economic, and commercial nucleus of Iran.
During the past 200 years, Tehran has been home to many reputed scholars, writers, poets and artists. Tehran province enjoys considerable capabilities in terms of the different dimensions of population, employment, production, agriculture, natural resources and infrastructures.
Major Cities
Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz, Mashhad, Tabriz
Names of the Provinces
1. Ardabil, 2. West Azarbaijan, 3. East Azarbaijan, 4. Bushehr, 5. Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, 6. Esfahan, 7. Fars, 8. Gilan, 9. Golestan, 10. Hamadan, 11. Hormozgan, 12. Ilam, 13.Kerman, 14. Kermanshah, 15. Southern Khorasan, 16. Khorasan Razavi, 17. Northern Khorasan, 18. Khuzestan, 19. Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad, 20. Kordestan, 21. Lorestan, 22. Markazi, 23. Mazandaran, 24. Qazvin, 25. Qom, 26. Semnan, 27. Sistan va Baluchestan, 28. Tehran, 29. Yazd, 30. Zanjan, 31. Alborz

Ethnic Groups
Persian 51%, Azari 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, others 1%.









































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